PLoS ONE 11(4): e0154368. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.
Mihael Brenčič1,2* 1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2 Geological Survey of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia * [email protected]
Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms — Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere
Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899–2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future.